Shandong is located in the eastern part of China and traversed by the main south-to-north traffic artery. It is at the intersection of Bohai-Rim Economic Zone and Yangtze River Delta Economic Zone and the center of East Asia Economic Circle. It also plays an important role in the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road. The total land area is 158,000 square kilometers, of which 6.635 million hectares are arable.
Shandong is one of the most populous provinces in China. The number of permanent population was 99.46 million by the end of 2016, ranking the second in China.
Shandong has a warm temperate monsoon climate.
History and culture
Shandong is one of the important cradles of Chinese culture and the Chinese nation. It is blessed with beautiful natural scenery, plentiful cultural relics and abundant tourism resources. It is where Confucius was born, where Mount Tai rose majestically to the sky and where the Yellow River empties into the sea.
Shandong is rich in mineral resources. More than 30 mineral resources are among top ten in China in terms of reserve, the output of crude oil is almost 1/3 of the country’s total, and the output of coal takes up 6%. Shandong is endowed with unique marine resources, with a 3345 km-long golden coastline, 1/6 of China’s total.
There are 142 institutions of higher education with 1.996 million students, 428 secondary vocational schools with 810,000 students, and 194 technical schools with 335,000 students. There are high-level international schools in such municipalities as Jinan, Qingdao, Yantai, Weihai and Rizhao, where foreigners can send their children to receive primary and secondary education. Every year 1.21 million jobs are created in cities and 1.3 million rural laborers are transferred to cities.
The mileage of railway and highway is 5,412 kilometers and 266,000 kilometers respectively. The annual handling capacity of 7 coastal ports of Qingdao, Yantai, Rizhao, Weihai, Weifang, Dongying and Binzhou is 1.29 billion tons, including 660 million tons of foreign trade cargo, ranking number one in the country. Total installed capacity is 97.16 million kilowatts, and the power generation capacity from new energy is 16.07 billion kilowatt hours.
There are 4 international airports in Jinan, Qingdao, Yantai and Weihai and more than 300 international and domestic air routes. There are now direct international flights to Seoul, Incheon, Busan, Osaka, Hong Kong and Singapore, and the year 2016 saw the launching of international flights to San Francisco, Los Angeles, Frankfurt and Melbourne.
Shandong is a major producer of grain, cotton, peanut and vegetables in China. Grain output hits 47.007 million tons, vegetable, fruit and meat outputs rank the first, and cotton and oil-bearing crops the second place. There are 40,600 industrial enterprises above the designated size, with annual prime business revenue 15 trillion yuan and profits 864.31 billion yuan. 49 of China’s top 500 companies are from Shandong. The sales revenue of food, paper-making, gold and tire ranks the first, machinery, light industry and building materials the second, and automobile and metallurgical industry the third. The service sector plays a dominant role in absorbing investment, creating jobs and paying taxes, and finance and insurance, modern logistics, commercial services and cultural tourism are pillar industries driving the growth of service sector.
Shandong is the third largest economy in the country. Its GDP hit 6.7 trillion yuan in 2016, 10,000 USD in per capita terms. The per capita disposable income for urban residents reached 34,012 yuan, rural residents 13,954 yuan. The total retail volume of consumer goods was 3064.58 billion yuan, the second in China. Import and export totaled 1546.65 billion yuan, including 905.22 billion yuan of export. Paid-in foreign investment was 111.07 billion yuan, outbound direct investment reached 86.23 billion yuan. 206 Fortune Global 500 companies invested in 685 companies in Shandong. Shandong has established business relations with over 220 countries and regions and set up offices in more than 130 countries and regions.
Industrial parks and zones
There are 190 development zones at or above the provincial level, including 15 state-level economic and technological development zones and 12 state-level high and new technology industrial development zones. The capability of absorbing capital including foreign investment has been enhanced. The zones also have access to better services in finance, logistics, engineering support, information, technical support and scientific and technological innovation.